Research - Women & Female Training

Women can discuss training, diet, nutrition, supplementation and other things here. Research specific to females and children will be posted here.

Research - Women & Female Training

Postby Canuck Singh » Sat Jun 07, 2008 9:33 am

15 Female College Atheletes
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of creatine loading on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue in a group of 15 female college athletes.

Skin surface electromyographic (EMG) procedures on the vastus lateralis muscle were used to identify power output to fatigue. Seven (7) of the girls loaded with creatine (5gm + 20gm glucose 4 x per day) for 5 days. The other 8 subjects loaded for the 5 days on a placebo (20gm of glucose). This was a well designed study. It was randomized and double blind. The researchers did not purposely select athletes that had not used creatine previously and had them abstain from using any supplement for 12 weeks before the study. This was a good approach!

Results showed that the average "work capacity at fatigue threshold" was indeed higher for the creatine supplemented group than for the placebo group. Their group average power output was greater before fatigue and upon closer scrutiny of the data, the differences were also clearly seen individually. Five (5) of the 7 creatine fed athletes increased their work capacity at fatigue threshold while only one increased in the placebo group. This shows this study was not a skewed by statistics.

It does appears creatine loading delays the onset of neuromuscular fatigue

ZRef: Effect of creatine loading on neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J.Appl.Physiol. 88:109-112. 2000
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Re: Research - Women & Female Training

Postby Canuck Singh » Sun Jun 08, 2008 8:02 pm

Women and Optimum Fat Loss
Muscle glycogen is a key component to exercise performance and several factors are known to affect its storage and metabolism within muscle. Most research has dealt with the effects of metabolic hormones such as insulin and adrenaline. One non-metabolic hormone shown to have impact on glycogen metabolism is the female ****-steroid hormone called estrogen. Animal studies have shown that estrogen increases muscle glycogen storage at rest and spares glycogen utilization during exercise due to increased fatty acid oxidation. Because little work has been performed on humans this study was undertaken to examine the relationship between estrogen and muscle glycogen metabolism.

Eight (8) healthy, physically active women were tested during two different phases of their menstrual cycle. Once at the mid-follicular (low estrogen), and once at the mid-luteal (high estrogen) phase. Assessment of muscle glycogen levels at rest and in response to exercise under conditions of high and low circulating estrogen levels demonstrated that muscle glycogen utilization was lower during the high estrogen phase. In fact, it appears the higher estrogen levels are, the less glycogen and more fat is oxidized for energy!

Estrogen enhances the activity of lipoprotein lipase (fat burning enzyme), increases circulating growth hormone levels and decreases circulating insulin levels; all of these factors promote fat burning. This effect was supported by respiratory exchange ratios RER measured during exercise.

It appears that estrogen levels in women at least, do have an impact on exercise metabolism and, it is a favorable one. Elevated levels of estrogen promote greater fat burning and spare muscle glycogen.

Ref: Influence of estrogen on muscle glycogen utilization during exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 167:273-274 Dec. 1999.
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Re: Research - Women & Female Training

Postby Canuck Singh » Sun Jun 08, 2008 8:05 pm

Elderly Women Should be Weighttraining too

A year long study of 42 elderly women (aged between 65 and 75) demonstrated that significant increases in strength can still be made at any age. Half of the 42 women participated in 52 of weight training. Three times a week for 1 hour each session. Results also showed strength increases were closely correlated with increases in the women’s bone density. All of the women in the weight training group showed a significant strength increase in all muscle groups. They used pretty intense programs too. Training at 75% of their 1 repetion maximum (RM) on multi joint exercises. This RM was regularly assessed so the 75% max could be up graded accordingly, good stuff! DEXA analysis was used to assess bone mineral density. In the elderly, problem areas for injury are the neck of the femur and the lower vertebrae. The weight training program improved the strength of these areas tremendously.

However, bone density improvements were not as great as the researchers would have liked but, a far greater improvement would have been seen if the gals were prescribed an appropriate bone building diet. The results of any program depends on the diet!

However, these results are very promising. For the entire year there was not one report by the women of injury or ill health caused by the weight training. This study demonstrates that anyone, at any age can make significant improvements to their body if they start now!

ref: Effects of one year resistance training on the relation between muscular strength and bone density in elderly women. Br.J.Sports Med.34:18-22,2000.
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Re: Research - Women & Female Training

Postby Canuck Singh » Sat Jun 14, 2008 8:43 pm

Men & Women are interestingly mostly the same - when it comes to training

Previously researchers suspected and shown in animal studies that women incur less muscle damage than males after strenuous exercise. This may be due to a natural defense mechanism or estrogen levels. However there is virtually no data on humans. This study demonstrated that after high intensity eccentric loading (the negative/lowering portion of weight training) both men and women exhibited similar muscle damage, soreness patterns and recovery rates.

Unlike most research this study used a very large subject number (83 women and 82 men). This adds more weight to the findings that despite our different hormonal profiles, men and women appear to be very similar in their recovery from intense weight training. The exercise protocol involved an isokinetic lever arm with the subjects seated in a preacher bench apparatus to simulate heavy preacher curl 'negatives' to evoke maximum muscle damage on the biceps and brachialis muscles. It worked; the researchers reported most subjects couldn't straighten their arms for at least three days! Muscle soreness, maximal force production and resting joint angle of the elbow were used to assess recovery every 24hours up to 168 hrs after the bout of exercise.

Peak soreness for both males and females occurred 48 hours after exercise and strength levels were still down 168 hrs (7 days) after the test. Isometric contraction was used as an assessment of muscle damage, and does appear to be a more reliable indirect indicator than blood creatine kinase levels, because so many other variables such as glutathione content influence this blood reading. Results showed that during high intensity resistance training, men and women recover at equal rates and women do not experience less muscle damage than men.

Ref: Response of males and females to high-force eccentric exercise. J.of Sports Sci.18:229-236,2000.
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Re: Research - Women & Female Training

Postby Canuck Singh » Sat Jun 14, 2008 8:55 pm

Oral Creatine Supplementation in Women

Much research has been performed with men using creatine, no studies have been reported regarding the benefits of oral creatine supplementation during resistance training in female athletes. This study followed similar dosage protocols as the men; a loading phase of 20gms per day for the first week then 2gms per day there after. This study only went for 5 weeks, however this did not prevent the girls that used creatine to make some significant improvements in their upper body strength (bench press 1rep max) and body fat levels (skin fold tests). The girls using the creatine improved their strength and lost more body fat than the girls taking the placebo.

Body weight did not change between groups, indicating the girls may have also grown some muscle in only 5 weeks of training. Skin fold caliper and hydrostatic (underwater weighing were used to assess body composition. In my opinion caliper testing is not good enough for university experimental protocols. However the readings in this case did correlate well with the hydrostatic (underwater weighing) method. Although this too is now being exposed as a rather inaccurate determinant of body composition because of its insensitivity and inaccuracy. No differences between the groups in body fat were seen using the hydrostatic method while a significant decrease was seen using skin fold caliper technique.

This is understandable, the leaner the athlete the more sensitive the caliper measure becomes and 5 weeks is too short a time for underwater weighing to pick up any subtle variation.

The major finding of this study is that creatine supplementation, using dosage protocols prescribed in literature for men works equally well in women that are training with weights. Significant results were seen in upper body strength and a decrease in body fat in only 5 weeks.

Ref: The effect of creatine supplementation during resistance training in women. J.Strength & Cond. Res. 14(2):207-213, 2000.
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Re: Research - Women & Female Training

Postby Canuck Singh » Sat Jun 14, 2008 8:57 pm

DHEA in older women


DHEA, testosterone and IGF-1 share the same biological activities that counteract the aging process and promote increased fat-free mass, decreases in body fat and a general increase in fitness and well being. While testosterone levels seem to be a good indicator of health in men, in women it appears that maintaining high levels of IGF-1 and DHEA are more important. This study examined the association between power and muscle function of the quadriceps in older women and their circulating levels of these three hormones. Results showed that the women (all over 65) that cored the highest in power tests also exhibited the highest levels of these anti-aging hormones, especially IGF-1 and DHEA.

The exercise assessment incorporated indices of both functional and isolated leg power. The data from these analyses showed that the women with the highest scores (most powerful legs) were irrespective of age, weight or limb size! The women with the more powerful legs also possessed the highest circulating levels of these longevity hormones. Although no muscle biopsies were taken the researchers suggested these combined results mean these women must also have better quality muscle (larger size and greater number of fibers), bone density and less intramuscular fat. Therefore, while men's testosterone levels appear important for longevity, in women it's high concentrations of DHEA and IGF-1 that appear most important to health and muscle function. So gals over 35, keep supplementing with DHEA and keep up those intense workouts; they produce good, natural squirts of IGF-1 within your system.

Ref: Leg extensor power and DHEA sulfate, IGF-1 and testosterone in healthy active elderly people. Eur.J.Appl. Physiol. 82:83-90. 2000.
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Re: Research - Women & Female Training

Postby Canuck Singh » Sat Jun 21, 2008 11:39 am

GH Levels - the longevity hormone - important in women

Intro:
In men, it appears high levels of testosterone need to be secreted to maintain optimal health. However for women, testosterone levels are minimal and previous studies have shown negligible increases after intense exercise. Yet women show the same rate of improvement as men from weight training. This study demonstrated growth hormone (GH) may be the more important hormone for women and that trained women secrete more of it.

Study & Results:
A group of six experienced female weight trainers and a group of six females that had not done weight training previously were placed on a short but intense resistance training program before an assessment day workout. Blood analyses were taken immediately after then 5,15,30 and 60 minutes post exercise to assess GH levels. All women were pre-menopause and blood tested approximately at the same phase of their menstrual cycle (early follicular phase) to control for hormonal fluctuations. Although both groups of women exhibited significantly elevated levels of GH after the 3 sets of 10RM total body workout, the women with weight training experience showed a larger pre & post GH elevation that remained higher for longer.

Discussions:
These results lead the scientists to speculate that GH output in women is related to training status. Women that hit the weights regularly, somehow secrete more of this precious longevity, anti aging hormone. The bottom line is women that wish to retain their youth and beauty for as long as possible need to keep hittin' the weights.

Ref : Growth hormone response to an acute bout of resistance exercise in weight trained and non-weight trained women. J.Strength & Cond. Res. 14(2):220-227,2000.
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Re: Research - Women & Female Training

Postby Canuck Singh » Sat Oct 25, 2008 8:52 pm

Here's reason to encourage the women in your life to be physically active: a recent study has shown that girls and young women who exercise regularly have a substantially lower risk of breast cancer before menopause.

The study completed by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Harvard University in Boston, is the largest and most detailed analysis to date of the effects of exercise on premenopausal breast cancer.

It utilized nearly 65,000 women and found that those who were physically active had a 23% lower risk of breast cancer before menopause. In particular, high levels of physical activity from ages 12 to 22 contributed most strongly to the lower breast cancer risk.

There are not a lot of prevention strategies for breast cancer, but findings from this study clearly show that physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood can pay off in the long run by significantly reducing a woman's risk of early breast cancer.

Source: Journal of the National Cancer Institute May, 2008.
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Re: Research - Women & Female Training

Postby David143 » Mon Aug 22, 2016 7:45 am

The Female Training Bible: Everything You Need To Get The
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