Research Vol. 1

Research & Articles. Being updated all the time

Research Vol. 1

Postby Canuck Singh » Fri Jun 06, 2008 7:27 pm

This is an old study, but an important one by William Kraemer:

Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med. Sci. Sport Exerc. 1999 vol 31 #8: 1147-1156.

Unlike other research studies this one involved experienced weight trainers in a progressive resistance training program over 12 weeks. The results were quite outstanding to say the least. However, it is important to note that Creatine was taken in the traditional fashion of Loading the first week, then going to a 5g maintenance dose. I suspect that the results would have been more significant if they had taken week 5 off, and re-loaded on week 6.

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 31(8):1147-1156, August 1999.
VOLEK, JEFF S.; DUNCAN, NOEL D.; MAZZETTI, SCOTT A.; STARON, ROBERT S.; PUTUKIAN, MARGOT; GOMEZ, ANA L.; PEARSON, DAVID R.; FINK, WILLIAM J.; KRAEMER, WILLIAM J.

Abstract:
Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 31, No. 8, pp. 1147-1156, 1999.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training on physiological adaptations including muscle fiber hypertrophy and muscle creatine accumulation.

Methods: Nineteen healthy resistance-trained men were matched and then randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either a creatine (N = 10) or placebo (N = 9) group. Periodized heavy resistance training was performed for 12 wk. Creatine or placebo capsules were consumed (25 g[middle dot]d-1) for 1 wk followed by a maintenance dose (5 g[middle dot]d-1) for the remainder of the training.

Results: After 12 wk, significant (P <= 0.05) increases in body mass and fat-free mass were greater in creatine (6.3% and 6.3%, respectively) than placebo (3.6% and 3.1%, respectively) subjects. After 12 wk, increases in bench press and squat were greater in creatine (24% and 32%, respectively) than placebo (16% and 24%, respectively) subjects. Compared with placebo subjects, creatine subjects demonstrated significantly greater increases in Type I (35% vs 11%), IIA (36% vs 15%), and IIAB (35% vs 6%) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Muscle total creatine concentrations were unchanged in placebo subjects. Muscle creatine was significantly elevated after 1 wk in creatine subjects (22%), and values remained significantly greater than placebo subjects after 12 wk. Average volume lifted in the bench press during training was significantly greater in creatine subjects during weeks 5-8. No negative side effects to the supplementation were reported.

Conclusion: Creatine supplementation enhanced fat-free mass, physical performance, and muscle morphology in response to heavy resistance training, presumably mediated via higher quality training sessions.
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research Vol. 1

Postby Canuck Singh » Thu Jul 17, 2008 4:37 pm

More Tid Bits:

• Highly respected Finnish scientist Anetti Mero presented research that demonstrated colostrum supplementation of 20 grams a day failed to alter growth factors (IGF and its binding proteins) or growth hormone or testosterone levels within male and female athletes.

• A high protein intake (approx 3 grams/kilogram/day) produced no undesired effects in a group of runners. However, this high protein intake significantly increased plasma (blood) amino acid levels, suggesting that the amount of circulating amino acids can be manipulated by a high protein intake. This finding is important for building muscle, as high amino acid concentrations within the blood are required to stimulate protein synthesis rates (growth) in muscle.

• High fat diets have been recommended to increase athletic performance by increasing fat oxidation and sparing muscle glycogen. However, a six-week ketogenic (low carb/high fat) diet only served to decrease power output and work capacity in a group of athletic males.

• In elite sprinters, bigger muscles mean better performance. The cross-sectional area of thigh muscles of seven elite sprinters revealed that bigger muscles correlated with faster sprint times.

• Circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are strongly correlated with the maintenance of muscular strength throughout life. Intense resistance training up-regulates the expression of the IGF genotypes in muscle. Theoretically, if you stick with weight training, you should be able to maintain a ton of strength (and muscle) throughout life.
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research Vol. 1

Postby Canuck Singh » Thu Jul 17, 2008 4:44 pm

Even more Tid Bits

The 6th International Olympic Committee World Congress on Sport Science was run in conjunction with the American College of Sports Medicine’s (ACSM) 49th annual convention held in St Louis, Missouri in June 2002.

The IOC conference is a biggie. As the title implies, the IOC World Congress on Sport Science is only held once every four years. Similar to the ACSM’s convention, this conference was a chance for sports scientists from all over the world to present the latest findings on performance enhancing drugs, supplementation and training techniques. Some of the research presented was very interesting, cutting edge stuff. As I was a presenting research at the ACSM’s convention, I was able to attend all the IOC’s presentations. Here is a summary of what I considered the most interesting information presented at this meeting.

To build muscle, high overload training is essential!

Did you know that by the time you’re 80 years old you will have lost 50% of your muscle mass? However, this doesn’t have to happen. It now appears that the IOC has recognized the need for high intensity resistance training, for the prevention of muscle loss in old age.

Dr. LaStayo from Northern Arizona University explained the value of using high loads in weight training exercise, and its necessary role in preventing muscle loss throughout life. His research showed that frail, elderly people respond robustly to intense resistance training. Using real heavy weight (95% of their 1-rep max) and low repetitions, this research showed that elderly people respond with exactly the same dramatic improvements in muscle size and strength as younger people. It is clear that people have the capacity to build muscle with intense weight lifting exercise at any age. In a few years we could see grandmas and grandpas in gyms everywhere across the country throwing the weights around with the focus and intensity of Skip La Cour! Well, maybe not quite. But that’s what I’d like to see!

Sports massage enhances strength.

Scientists from Brigham Young University in Hawaii are the first to demonstrate a direct increase in strength via a once-a-week massage.

Eleven young men received a hamstring massage on one leg for 10 weeks. The massaged leg was randomly chosen and the subject’s “unmassaged” leg served as the control. After 10 weeks of massage, strength tests on the hamstring muscles revealed the weekly massaged produced a significant improvement in strength. Based on these results, bodybuilders now have a good reason to treat themselves to a massage each week.

Growth hormone use can be detected.

Growth hormone (GH) is a powerful anabolic compound, and because it’s use cannot be detected by drug testing agencies, some athletes use it on a regular basis to enhance results from intense training. However, GH use in tested events may soon be a thing of the past. A team of scientists from Europe, Australia and the US may have perfected the first method of detecting illegal GH use.

GH has been impossible to detect because a biochemical difference cannot be determined between GH that is produced naturally within the body and GH that is injected. For this reason, GH has become the drug of choice among elite athletes.

Because artificial GH and naturally secreted GH are identical, these scientists approached the detectability problem of GH doping from a different angle. It appears that injecting GH causes a significant rise in serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and a range of IGF-1 binding proteins and other protein peptides. The rise and fall of these serum protein levels depends on the dosage and duration of the GH administration. Interestingly, men appear to be more sensitive to elevations in these blood “markers” of GH use than women. The scientists proposed that when these blood markers are adjusted for age, a cut-off formula detected 86% of men and 39% of women who used GH in their trials. The researchers admit that this work needs further validation, however, they seem to have provided the basis of a robust and enforceable doping test that will identify users of GH in sports where the drug is prohibited.

Do years of weight training affect the way muscles function?

Research presented by Todd Shoepe from Oregon State University says no. This research extracted muscle fibers from bodybuilders with 7-10 years experience. The scientists compared these whole, singular fibers to muscle taken from people who do not lift weights.

The muscle individual fibers were mounted between a force transducer and servo-controlled motor units and a series of tests were carried out to assess peak force, shortening velocities and contractile mechanisms. These lab experiments showed that the bodybuilders’ muscle fibers were definitely stronger. However, these strength increases are due primarily to an increase in cross-sectional area (size); the mechanisms of muscle contraction are unaltered.

Therefore, years of weight training do not appear to affect the contractile function of muscle. This is important information for members of the medical profession as resistance training is being prescribed to help correct abnormal muscle function in people with many different kinds of muscular diseases.

How long do anabolic steroid users maintain their gains after drug use has ceased?

This is one question that many athletes would love answered. However, from a scientific point of view, it is a question that is very difficult to answer. There are many suggestions regarding the length of time that performance enhancement persists after anabolic steroid use stops, but up until now, no controlled studies have examined this topic.

I’m proud to say that one of my former professors, Dr. Robert Weatherby at the Southern Cross University in Australia, was the first to provide some data that may answer this question.

In Dr. Weatherby’s research, 21 experienced weight trainers were given either a weekly injection of testosterone enanthate, 3.5gms per kilogram of bodyweight (that’s around 280mgs per week for an 80kg athlete) or a placebo injection (saline) for 12 weeks. All subjects undertook a supervised resistance training program during this time. After the steroid or placebo treatment, all the subjects continued the weight training program for another 12 weeks. Performance tests were conducted before and after the 12 week injection phase, then again during the following weeks of training without injections. Tests included maximal bench press strength, a 30 meter sprint and a six second power cycling test.

After 12 weeks, the men given testosterone showed significant improvements in all performance tests compared to the men given the placebo. However, six weeks after the steroid administration had ceased, strength improvements decreased dramatically. By 12 weeks of training, these men recorded only an 8% increase in strength above pre-steroid administration. The steroid induced gains in strength were lost at the same rate they were gained. The men given the steroid had lost most of their newly found strength by 12 weeks after training without the drug.

However, the most interesting finding of this research was the result of the sprint performance test. The increase in sprint performance created by anabolic steroid use was maintained after 12 weeks of no drug use. The men given testosterone enanthate retained their gain in speed for three months after drug use had ceased!

The researchers suggested that these gains may have been due to improvements in neuromuscular coordination that occurred from the use of heavier weights during the drug administration phase. This data is very interesting. It means a sprinter could finish a steroid cycle 12 weeks out from a drug tested track meet and carry that enhanced performance into the track meet and still pass a drug test.
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research Vol. 1

Postby Canuck Singh » Fri Jul 18, 2008 3:05 pm

Muscle contraction and anabolic hormones.

Resistance training in general is a potent stimulus for the secretion of the anabolic hormones that build muscle. However, there is a lot of confusion about the hormonal response from performing different muscle contractions. Some research shows that very heavy eccentric training (the lowering of a heavy weight) is a more potent stimuli than the lifting (concentric) phase or the static (holding) phase. However, much of this research is impractical because most bodybuilders and athletes train with barbells and dumbbells that provide a fixed amount of weight during all three contractions.

A recent study examined the hormonal response to eccentric and concentric lifting using barbells and dumbbells with the same workloads. The results obtained from 10 males experienced in bodybuilding exercise revealed that both types of muscle contractions stimulate free testosterone secretion equally effectively. However, the concentric phase of an exercise effectively increases lactate levels that in turn stimulate growth hormone secretion.

From the data presented, it appears that the good ol’ fashion barbell is effective simply because it allows lifters to perform both the eccentric and concentric phase of training at a high intensity, therefore providing the most potent combination for anabolic hormonal secretion.

Stretching and strength.

Have you ever injured a limb and been unable to train it for weeks or months? After the injury’s healed your left with one arm or leg a lot weaker and smaller than the other. Anyone who has experienced this knows how frustrating it is and how long it takes to rebuild the once injured limb to its former strength. However, there is some good news! If this ever happens to you, there are some definite steps to take to minimize the strength and muscle losses and get back on track much quicker.

First, scientists have known for quite some time that training one leg also improves the strength of the other. So rather than wait until your injury has healed, keep training using your good arm or leg. Working your good limb will increase the strength of the injured limb. Interestingly, most of the benefits are seen when heavy weights are used.

Based on the fact that heavy weight training involves a significant stretching component, Dr. Nelson and co-workers from Northern Arizona University examined whether a unilateral stretching program would increase the strength of an unused limb. The researcher got a group of college students to stretch the calf muscles of only one leg. After ten weeks, strength in both legs improved from stretching only one leg!

Similar to weight training, it appears that stretching can activate spinal reflexes enough to prevent a loss in strength and possibly increase the strength of an injured limb.
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research Vol. 1

Postby Canuck Singh » Sat Nov 08, 2008 3:22 pm

Some Useful References:

1. Demling RH & DeSanti L. Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers. Annals of Nutr.& Metab.44(1):21-29 2000.

2. Boss C et al. Short term protein and energy supplementation activates nitrogen kinetics and accretion in poorly nourished elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;17:1129-37.

3. M.Benner, et al. The effect of creatine supplementation during resistance training in women. J.Strength & Cond. Res. 14(2):207-213, 2000.

4. Kraemer WJ, et al. Influence of exercise training on physiological and performance changes with weight loss in men. Med.Sci.Sports & Execi. 31(9):1320-1329,1999.

5. Kraemer WJ, et al. Influence of exercise training on physiological and performance changes with weight loss in women. J.Appl.Physiol.83(1):270-279,1997.

6. M Francaux & JR Poortmans. Effects of training and creatine supplement on muscle strength and body mass. Eur. J. Appl Physiol. 80: 165-168, 1999.

7. Landis et al. Effect of supplementation with a cysteine donor on muscular performance. J.Appl. Physiol. 87(4):1381-1385, 1999

8. Hunter GR, et al. A role for high intensity exercise on energy balance and weight control. Int J Obes Relat. Metab Disord. 1998 22(6):489-93.

9. Bryner RW, et al. Effects of resistance vs aerobic training combined with an 800 calorie liquid diet on lean body mass. J Am.Coll. Nutr. 1999 18(2):115-21

10. Broeder CE, t al. The effects of either high-intensity resistance or endurance training on resting metabolic rate. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 55(4):802-10.

11. RB Kreider, et al. Effects of ingesting supplements designed to promote lean tissue accretion. Int. J.Sport Nutrition 6.3, 1996:234-236.
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada
---------


Return to Research Revelations

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 0 guests

cron