Research - Creatine Vol. 1: Benefits & Safety

Research & Articles. Being updated all the time

Research - Creatine Vol. 1: Benefits & Safety

Postby Canuck Singh » Sat Jun 07, 2008 9:10 am

The benefits of creatine supplementation are far greater than the usually documented short-term, power performance enhancement. This study demonstrated creatine supplementation actually provided more rapid re-synthesis of Phosphocreatine (PCr) - the primary energy substrate of ATP in aerobic energy pathways.

The prestigious Journal of Applied Physiology reveal the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation on energy metabolism during repeated muscular contraction within the living, working muscle.

3IP-magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess eight trained male subjects. This is an excellent, method of assessing what’s happening in living, working tissue without cutting open or killing anything. No homogenizing, separating or reaction stoicheometry to worry about.

The subjects that supplemented with creatine for only 11 days showed lower PCr utilization, lower phosphate (Pi) accumulation, and higher pH in working muscle. These results demonstrate that elevating muscle creatine stores enables aerobic energy pathways to supply energy (ATP) quicker and easier for a given output. Aerobic isometric muscle contraction was investigated, however, due to these positive effects on these critical components of energy production the authors suspect this carry over should occur to other forms of steady state exercise.

Ref: Creatine reduces human muscle PCr and pH decrements and Pi accumulation during low-intensity exercise. Published in APStracts on 10 January 2000. J.Appl. Physiol.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
An excellent review of creatine supplementation in humans by world-renowned biochemist Ira Jacobs shows the only "side effect" ever reported during creatine supplementation has been weight gain.

Jacobs reviewed well over 100 full research papers published only in peer-reviewed journals where research design was double blind and placebo controlled only. No rabble or newspaper stuff, just the science. Jacobs has heard all the media hype about the side effects of creatine - everything from muscle tears, cramps, kidney and gastrointestinal problems, acne and even nightmares! While examining extensive data on both elite athletes during intense training and complete novices, Jacobs could not find even a hint of one of these problems in the literature. Even a recent report on long term creatine users (5-10years) came up with nothing, zip, nada. No side effects.

The report also showed those subjects with the highest creatine uptake in muscle had the lowest initial, pretreatment concentrations. Where as those with already high creatine levels show little or no change.

Exercise during the supplementation period resulted in increased creatine accumulation and that creatine loading does enhance muscular performance. However, in most reports about performance, there were no simultaneous determination of muscle creatine levels. So we don’t know what levels are required to improve performance.

So after 10 years of scrutiny, creatine shows an immaculate track record. Even socially acceptable substances like caffeine and aspirin cannot demonstrate this.

Ref: Dietary Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation.1999
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research - Creatine Vol. 1: Benefits & Safety

Postby Canuck Singh » Sun Jun 08, 2008 8:13 pm

Creatine increases ATP :ugeek:
2 weeks of creatine supplementation at 21gm/day actually increased the amount of ATP (energy) formed in working muscle, at both high and low intensities.

Although there is a ton of research coming through on the benefits of creatine supplementation, it really has not been clearly demonstrated how or why these benefits occur, until now. A team of researchers in Belgium used P-NMR (a member of the MRI family) to show that in the active working calf muscles of 14 male subjects, creatine supplementation directly increased resting Phospho-creatine levels (PCr). This directly enhanced the amount of ATP produced during the muscular work.

In muscles PCr is directly responsible for rebuilding critical ATP levels and this increase in PCr stores (around 20%) significantly increased the amount of ATP synthesized during exercise. More ATP generated means greater capacity for work when you’re hitting those heavy weights. The fact that oral creatine supplementation has been shown to increase PCr stores is important. It shows that creatine fits directly into the energy production spectrum. These increases in PCr also produced higher repletion of ATP during repeated muscle contractions. More ATP was regenerated faster.

The researchers confirmed this means creatine supplementation exerts a powerful ergogenic effect via a direct increased rate of ATP synthesis in working muscle. Also important is the fact that these enhanced ATP levels were seen during both submaximal and high intensity work.

Upon examination of the study protocol, the researchers appeared not to specify consuming the creatine in a carbohydrate-based drink. This would have transported more creatine into muscle and generated an even more potent effect on energy re-synthesis.

Ref: Effect of exogenous creatine supplementation on muscle PCr metabolism. Int. J.Sports Med.21:139-145,2000.
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research - Creatine Vol. 1: Benefits & Safety

Postby Canuck Singh » Tue Jun 24, 2008 7:46 pm

Creatine reduces Homocysteine Reactions

Research presented by Dr McCarty explains how creatine may lower the risk of heart disease. During creatine synthesis in the liver there is a large amount of "methyl group transfers", and this chemical reaction is thought to impair the efficiency of homocysteine disposal within the body. Build up of homocysteine is thought to contribute directly to heart disease.

Exogenous creatine would inhibit the bodies need to produce homocysteine, lowering the risk of heart disease.

Ref: Medical Hypotheses. Jan, 56(1), pp.5-7 (2001)

Blame your genetics for your poor body weight? Research suggests that you genetic makeup can be altered through changes in activity. No more reason for blaming the parents for those extra inches round the waist

Ref: Genomic scan for genes affecting body composition before and after training in Caucasians from HERITAGE. J Appl Physiol 2001 May;90(5):1777-87
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research - Creatine Vol. 1: Benefits & Safety

Postby Canuck Singh » Sun Jul 06, 2008 5:38 pm

Creatine Loading with no exercise is safe
Creatine monohydrate is probably the most extensively researched sports supplement ever. It is a well-documented performance enhancer and muscle growth stimulator with no reported adverse effects. However, much of the research on creatine is performed on healthy people undertaking an exercise program. No research has directly examined creatine's potential for producing adverse effects in healthy people without the variable of exercise. This study assessed creatine's potential for negative effects, such as increased blood pressure and kidney stress in healthy men and women not participating an exercise program.

The researchers of this study hypothesized that any negative effects of creatine supplementation would most likely occur on a high-dose regime with no exercise. The "no exercise rule" eliminated the possibility of the creatine being "used-up" (metabolized) during muscle contraction. The scientists carefully monitored the blood pressure and kidney function (plasma creatinine concentrations and creatinine clearance rates) of 15 men and 15 women as they supplemented with creatine (20-grams a day for 5-days) and compared these results to those taking a glucose placebo.

The "creatine loading with no exercise" protocol did not produce any adverse effects. No effects were seen in blood pressure, plasma creatinine or creatinine clearance contrast. High does creatine without exercise did not cause kidney stress. However, fat-free mass and total body mass did increase in the participants taking creatine. Interestingly, the observed mass changes were greater for men versus women. It appears that creatine increase lean mass and is safe to take even without performing exercise.

The researchers concluded that acute creatine administration does not affect blood pressure or renal function and the effect of creatine on lean mass may be greater in men than women.

Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.32;2:291-296, 2000.
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research - Creatine Vol. 1: Benefits & Safety

Postby Canuck Singh » Tue Jul 08, 2008 6:19 pm

CM Cell Volumization
Creatine monohydrate exploded onto the sports supplement market almost 10 years ago. It turned the athletic world upside-down because it was the first nutritional supplement shown to stimulate dramatic gains in strength and lean body mass. However, sports scientists were skeptical. They assumed these extraordinary gains in lean mass were simply due to water retention. Now, these assumptions have been proven wrong.

This is the second study to confirm that creatine supplementation accelerates the growth of muscle tissue by increasing muscle cell volume. Increasing a muscle's cell volume (the amount of water inside the cell) is a well-documented, potent trigger of the mechanisms that build lean tissue. Research at Oklahoma University demonstrated that when athletes use creatine, it gets inside the muscle to increase muscle cell volume and accelerate gains in muscle mass.

Creatine draws water inside the cell and this triggers the synthesis of lean tissue. Scientists aren't sure why this phenomenon occurs. However, when creatine is transported inside muscle cells, water follows. This increases muscle cell volume and shuts off catabolic (breakdown) processes while stimulating anabolism (growth).

In this study, this "cell volumizing" property of creatine also produced a direct improvement in sports performance. The football players on creatine increased their strength, peak muscle torque, anaerobic power and capacity as well as built bigger muscles. Competitive athletes that don't use creatine are missing out on some dramatic gains.

Ref: Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 33;10:1667-1673, 2001
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research - Creatine Vol. 1: Benefits & Safety

Postby Canuck Singh » Fri Jul 18, 2008 3:00 pm

Many sporting organizations recommend that their athletes steer clear of using creatine supplements because they cause dehydration, cramping and heat stroke. This is complete nonsense and goes directly against hundreds of studies that demonstrate creatine is a very safe and highly effective supplement. And these studies have examined creatine’s effects in young adults, children and older people up to 86 years of age.

Recently researchers at Memphis State University demonstrated that creatine supplementation does not cause dehydration and has no effects on fluid intake or urine volume. It’s extremely curious that many so-called “health experts” ignore or are simply unaware of the overwhelming amount of evidence supporting the safety and effectiveness of creatine monohydrate. If they ignore the evidence that’s irresponsible, if they are unaware of the science, that’s inexcusable.

Ref: J. Strength Cond. Res. 15:395-400, 2001.


Starving? Eat Creatine

Eighteen amateur swimmers assigned to receive 5 grams a day of creatine for 45 days remained in positive protein balance and gained a small (but not significant) amount of lean muscle, despite a low energy and carbohydrate intake.

The placebo group with a similar diet achieved negative protein balance and showed a significant reduction in lean muscle. [19]
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research - Creatine Vol. 1: Benefits & Safety

Postby Canuck Singh » Wed Jul 23, 2008 5:15 pm

The results on tests of athletes that have used creatine for up to three continuous years show this supplement causes no detrimental effects to the liver or kidneys. That’s the conclusion of a long-term study recently performed at Truman State University in Kirksville, Missouri.

Researchers at Truman State examined the effect of long-term creatine supplementation on the liver and kidney function of collegiate football players. Creatine supplementation was undertaken for an average of 2.9 +/- 1.8 years with supplementation dosages that ranged from 5 to 20-grams per day. When venous blood samples were compared between the creatine treatment and control groups there were no differences found in any of the clinical markers typically used to determine impairments in liver and kidney function. Additionally, all measures determined for the creatine group fell within clinically normal ranges.

Ref: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 12(4):453 – 460, 2002.
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research - Creatine Vol. 1: Benefits & Safety

Postby Canuck Singh » Sat Oct 25, 2008 7:59 pm

Over 200 studies have shown that creatine supplementation enhances athletic performance. Despite an abundance of research that shows the effectiveness and safety of this supplement, some fallacies still exist. One of these is an unfounded concern about creatine’s effect on kidney function, particularly with long-term use.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of creatine supplementation on renal (kidney) function in healthy males (18-35 years old) during exercise training. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed. All participants were randomly allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (approximately 10 grams a day for 3 months) or placebo (sugar).

All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training, three 40-minute workouts per week. Serum creatinine and urinary sodium and potassium were determined at baseline and at the end of the study. Another marker of kidney function, Cystatin C was also assessed prior to, during and after the supplementation/training program.

Results showed absolutely no differences between the groups in any of the variables assessed. This lead the researchers to concluded that long-term, high-dose creatine supplementation does not provoke any renal dysfunction in healthy males undergoing exercise training. Another interesting finding was that, according to the data, exercise training actually improved kidney function.

Source: Eur J Appl Physiol Jan, 2008.
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada

Re: Research - Creatine Vol. 1: Benefits & Safety

Postby Canuck Singh » Wed May 20, 2009 2:29 am

The amount of water used in each shake has the potential to affect the anabolic response of the workout and I’ll explain why.

Creatine and amino acids are molecules that are very hydrophilic. That means they draw water to themselves. Their chemical charges dictate that they need to be surrounded by water for transport throughout the body.

When it comes to up-take by muscle cells, the water-drawing properties of these molecules ensure that they exert a very powerful anabolic effect when transported into the cell, this effect is known as cell volumizing.

When water is drawn into a muscle cell via the up-take of these nutrients, the cell’s volume increases. In turn, this acts as an independent trigger of an array of anabolic (growth) processes that include increased protein synthesis, glycogen storage, a decrease in muscle protein breakdown, glutathione production and further uptake of amino acids and other nutrients. All of these processes underline rapid recovery after training.

Not taking in enough water during this time can short-circuit the anabolic potential of supplementation. I recommend at least 18 ounces of water is used in each pre- and post-workout shake.
User avatar
Canuck Singh
Site Admin
 
Posts: 1660
Joined: Thu Jun 05, 2008 6:40 pm
Location: Vancouver Canada
---------


Return to Research Revelations

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 0 guests

cron